Flash X-ray Imaging.

Two systems working as one.

Producing flash X-ray radiographs to study HOT SPOTS or DYNAMIC EVENTS requires two systems working together in harmony. The first system, referred to as the Flash X-ray System, is used to create X-ray pulses with either single or multi-anode X-ray tubes. And the second system, referred to as the FXR Image Detection System, is used to capture and convert the X-ray pulses into radiographic images with either an image plate or a scintillator coupled with a high-speed camera.

High-speed imaging up to one million frames per second

nanosecond pulse width

Up to 60 mm of steel penetration

Less than 1 minute pulser recharge time

Up to 2 km distance between control computer and experiment

250 micro Sv dose per pulse for 480 kVp source

Freeze an object traveling up to 15 km/s

4 Essential setups for FXR imaging

From one fixed area of study at one moment in time, to 3D stereo imaging, to high-speed bursts of image sequences, to multi-area time sequence imaging along a trajectory, Scandiflash Flash X-ray tubes are designed to work individually, as well as in numerous combinations to reveal the most intricate and hidden details of the “hot spots” within your dynamic events. Combine any of these four setups and you’ll be able you to study any scenario you can imagine!

1- Single Flash X-ray

Single FXR Imaging is our basic building block and is used to study one “hot spot” from a single angle of view. Either a straight or a right-angled Flash X-ray tube is paired with a Single Imaging Detector to capture one image of a dynamic event occurring at one fixed area of interest.

2- Stereo Flash X-ray

Combine two or more Single FXR setups to achieve Stereo FXR Imaging and you’re able to study a “hot spot” from multiple angles of view. This 3D view is made simple with the Scandiflash Dual Tube option. That’s right, one pulser can power two FXR tubes where each X-ray tube is paired with a Single Imaging Detector and will simultaneously create one image per X-ray tube of the same dynamic event at a fixed area of interest.

3- Cine Flash X-ray

Visualize film-like motion within your dynamic events using Cine or Cinematic FXR Imaging to study a “hot spot” with multiple images from a near-single angle of view. The benefit of Cine FXR Imaging is that it enables “fixed-area time sequence imaging” which produces a high-speed time sequence of images of one event at a fixed area of interest in order to study the progress of the event as it unfolds. Cine FXR Imaging is achieved with a specialized flash X-ray tube known as a Multi-Anode Tube (MAT) paired with a Cinematic Imaging Detector (CID). Take your study a step further and get Stereo Cine FXR with an additional angle of view. Connect two MATs with the Dual Option and capture image bursts with two CIDs!

4- Trajectory Flash X-ray

Unravel the mysteries in your most complex scenarios with a Trajectory Flash X-ray setup. By combining any number of Single, Stereo or Cine FXR setups, you can study multiple stages of dynamic events as they occur along a trajectory or path. Trajectory FXR Imaging enables “multi-area time sequence imaging” which produces a time sequence of images of multiple stages of a dynamic event from a series of fixed areas of interest in order to study the progress of the event as it unfolds along the trajectory.

Flash X-ray Systems

Scandiflash Flash X-Ray Systems generate extremely short pulses used to capture dynamics in the harshest of conditions, ranging from indoor lab setups to outdoor large-scale firing ranges. The systems are modular and can be tailored to meet your requirements for number of pulses and peak energy conditions.

Scandiflash Standard FXR Systems

Scandiflash Flash X-ray (FXR) Systems are valuable solutions to see through plastics, fire, smoke, metal and other materials during dynamic testing in materials science, engineering and more, using short, intense X-ray pulses for high-speed and ultra high-speed imaging. Exposure times ranging from 20–35 nanoseconds make it possible to see events at speeds up to several km/s, and the 1mm focal spot size produces extremely sharp radiographs for analysis. Scandiflash FXR systems feature a wide voltage range and the option of using soft X-rays for optimal penetration and contrast for most applications.

The main components of a Scandiflash Flash X-Ray system are:

  • 1 to 16 X-Ray tubes, generating up to 8 consecutive X-Ray pulses from up to two different directions at the same time (dual mode)
  • 1 to 4 pulsers that generate a current pulse with an extremely high voltage
  • 1 to 2 control cabinets including
    • 1 PDU4 power distribution units per cabinet
    • 1 to 4 FXRC4 Flash X-Ray channel controllers per cabinet
    • 1 SU8 communication switch unit per cabinet
  • 1 control computer, controlling the system, including the ScandiControl software
  • 1 vacuum pump down and service unit (RPS30)
  • 1 Dry air compressor unit supplying the pulser and X-ray tube with isolation gas (CAD70/CAD701)

The different Flash X-Ray system models are denoted according to their peak voltage output, which also determines the performance parameters of the system.

The systems are usually delivered with a set of accessories:

  • A number of your choice of digital image plates to capture the high speed event as an X-ray image (alternatively, scintillator screens and high speed cameras can be used)
  • Digital image scanner and image software

For accessories like X-ray protection units, stands and frames, see the accessories section.

Scandiflash systems comparison

SCF150

Output voltage (kV)
75 – 150

Output peak current (kA)
2

Pulse width (ns)
35

Dose per pulse at 1m (mR)
1.6

Penetration of steel at 2.5m *
3mm

Source size **
1.5mm

Dual tube option
No

Multi anode option
Yes

SCF300

Output voltage (kV)
100 – 300

Output peak current (kA)
10

Pulse width (ns)
20

Dose per pulse at 1m (mR)
9

Penetration of steel at 2.5m *
18mm

Source size **
1.5mm

Dual tube option
Yes

Multi anode option
Yes

SCF450

Output voltage (kV)
200 – 450

Output peak current (kA)
10

Pulse width (ns)
20

Dose per pulse at 1m (mR)
20

Penetration of steel at 2.5m *
30mm

Source size **
1.5mm

Dual tube option
Yes

Multi anode option
Yes

SCF450S

Output voltage (kV)
240 – 480

Output peak current (kA)
10

Pulse width (ns)
25

Dose per pulse at 1m (mR)
25

Penetration of steel at 2.5m *
34mm

Source size **
2.5mm

Dual tube option
Yes

Multi anode option
Yes

SCF1200

Output voltage (kV)
650 – 1200

Output peak current (kA)
10

Pulse width (ns)
20

Dose per pulse at 1m (mR)
65

Penetration of steel at 2.5m *
60mm

Source size **
2.5mm

Dual tube option
No

Multi anode option
No

* Sandiflash G Fast intensifying screens and Kodak T-MAT H film (0.7 gross film density). FXR Systems 150, 300, 450 & 450S feature a 5m pulser to X-ray tube coaxial cable. FXR System 1200 features tube in pulser.

** Source size may be varied by different anodes. Given values are typical.

FXR Image Detection Systems

Based on the two methods that are most commonly used to capture and convert X-ray pulses into radiographic images, Scandiflash offers two types of Image Detection Systems which give the necessary flexibility for various setups and scenarios.

Single Imaging Detector


Our Single Imaging Detector utilizes a combination of an image plate and a scanner which is best paired with a single-anode X-ray tube to capture a single image per event per image plate. The X-rays expose the image plate, creating an imprint of the X-ray intensity. This image is then scanned using a specialized scanner, which converts the stored energy into a visible image. The Single Imaging Detector is ideal for studying fixed areas of interest or visualizing the trajectory of moving objects. Scandiflash provides a range of image plates & cassettes, scanners, and software for optimal image viewing.

Cinematic Imaging Detector

Our Cinematic Imaging Detector employs a scintillator coupled with a high-speed camera. This time-sequence imaging method facilitates the capture of a high-speed sequence of images at different event times by briefly illuminating a phosphor screen while simultaneously recording with a high-speed or ultra high-speed camera. The Cinematic Imaging Detector is ideal for Cineradiographic FXR Imaging.

The Scandiflash Cinematic Imaging Detector (CID) is precisely engineered to seamlessly integrate with the Scandiflash Multi-Anode Tube (MAT) X-ray source which emits a rapid sequence of flash X-ray pulses from a confined area. This configuration is well-suited for studying the impact behavior of materials and structures at high velocities or observing the motion of mechatronic devices within a construction setting.

And to orchestrate the perfect symphony of camera framing and X-ray flashes, the Scandiflash CID seamlessly integrates a delay stage. It grants you complete control over trigger signals, enabling precise synchronization to capture every breathtaking detail of your dynamic events.

The time consuming, detailed and complicated process of custom fabricating your own cinematic imaging detector is no longer necessary as the Scandiflash CID comprises all the distinct elements you’ll need—a fluorescent screen, an optical alignment stage, and a high-speed camera—all working together in perfect harmony to enhance the system’s overall functionality and performance. And best of all, our CID is designed for immediate deployment. It provides a comprehensive, ready-to-use detector, delivering prompt and high-quality imaging solutions. There’s no waiting – you can start collecting data right away!

Scandiflash Mobile FXR Lab Solutions

A complete Flash X-ray Imaging System is packaged in a 20’ ISO container ready for transport and setup at remote testing sites.

The Mobile FXR Lab is a research center housed in a reinforced, insulated and heated container. Scandiflash Mobile FXR Labs are built on-demand and outfitted with the exact Flash X-ray system required for your research.

Once onsite, setup is fast with multiple access ports for Flash X-ray tubes. Everything your system needs is included in the Mobile FXR Lab.

Container Dimensions (LWH): 20 x 8 x 8.5 ft (6.06 x 2.43 x 2.59 m)

Pulsers

Scandiflash FXR Systems use pulsers (high-voltage pulse generators) to generate high-intensity X-ray bursts (pulses) for radiography. Scandiflash pulsers are modified Marx surge generators – voltage multiplication is accomplished by charging capacitors in parallel and discharging them in series with spark gaps.

Grounded metal tanks are used to house pulser components – capacitors, spark gap switches and charging network. Pulser tanks are precision-built and pressurized to improve insulation and control over spark gap switch breakdown voltage. The exceptional shielding properties of Scandiflash’s tanks, combined with the coaxial nature of capacitor discharge, lead to unusually low external radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation levels.

Scandiflash PG300 Pulser

Dimensions (øL) & Weight:
35.24 x 54 in (89.5 x 137.35 cm)
882 lb (400 kg)

Output voltage (kV)
100 – 300

Scandiflash PG450 Pulser

Dimensions (øL) & Weight:
35.24 x 54 in (89.5 x 137.35 cm)
915 lb (415 kg)

Output voltage (kV)
200 – 450

Scandiflash PG450S Pulser

Dimensions (øL) & Weight:
35.24 x 54 in (89.5 x 137.35 cm)
926 lb (420 kg)

Output voltage (kV)
240 – 480

Need a different size? We also offer both Small and XL

Scandiflash PG150 Pulser

Dimensions (øL) & Weight:
11.67 x 22.28 in (29.65 x 56.6 cm)
115 lb (52 kg)

Output voltage (kV)
75 – 100

Scandiflash PG1200 Pulser

Dimensions (øL):
38.58 x 57.87 in (98 x 147 cm)
1984 lb (900 kg)

Output voltage (kV)
650 – 1200

Dual Tube Option

Some of our pulsers are compatible with our Dual Tube Option (see Systems comparison for compatibility). Pulsers equipped with Dual Tube Option allow two X-Ray tubes to be connected to one pulser. The advantage of such a setup is that it is possible to record two X-Ray images of the experiment at the exact same time but from different angles. Note that dual mode also can be retrofitted to your current system.

Flash X-ray tubes

XT450, 300 & 150
Straight X-ray Tube Emitters

Dimensions (LWH) & Weight:

XT150
3 x 5.7 x 12.72 in
(145 x 77 x 78 mm)
8.82 lbs (4 kg)

XT300 & 450 & 450S
5 x 8.9 x 21.25 in
(545 x 130 x 225 mm)
24.25 / 26.45 / 26.45 lbs
(11 / 12 / 12 kg)

XT150RL, 300RL & 450RL
Right Angle X-ray Tube Emitters

Dimensions (LWH) & Weight:

XT150RL
12.79 x 3 x 6.97 in
(325 x 77 x 177 mm)
8.82 lbs (4 kg)

XT300RL & XT450RL
21.38 x 5.08 x 6.34 in
(543 x 129 x 161 mm)
26.45 lbs (12 kg)

Scandiflash FXR Systems feature cold cathode X-ray tubes with a robust design and small focal spot size – creating the ideal X-ray tubes for recording radiographs of ballistics and hypervelocity impact testing. X-ray tubes XT 150 through XT 450S are self-contained (a separate tube head is not needed for remote operation) and connected to pulsers with a flexible high-voltage coaxial cable. Pulser model PG 1200 features an X-ray tube connected directly to the pulser output.

Each X-ray tube has been designed to be user serviceable – consumable parts can be replaced on site at a fraction of the cost of a new tube to keep your research going strong and within budget.

The same tube can be used for both single and dual tube operation. For applications where low energy radiation is essential for improving contrast, an optional soft X-ray adapter (a thin plastic screen fitted to the tube) may be used for transmitting radiation as low as a few keV.

    • Spot size 1, 2.5 and 4 mm diameter
    • Tungsten anodes (standard, can be replaced with other materials)
    • Broad band X-ray spectra from 20 keV to pulser kVp
    • Soft X-ray option window available (6 keV)
    • Lightweight and easy to handle
    • Easy to service and maintain

Focal Spot Size & Radiographs

Focal spot size plays an important role in the quality of radiographs – smaller focal spot sizes, produce sharper radiographs.

Flash X-ray tubes may be used with a 1mm focal spot size resulting in sharp radiographs, even at short source to object distances.

Multi-Anode Flash X-ray Tubes

Capture 2-8 images simultaneously

A. Multi-Anode Flash X-ray Tube
B. Target
C. Projectile
D. Gun 
E. Scintillating Screen
F. Intensifier
G. High-Speed/Ultra High-Speed Camera

Multi-anode Flash X-ray tubes are used when closely spaced X-ray sources are needed to minimize parallax. Radiation from the tube is directed onto a scintillating (fluorescent) screen placed behind the subject. The scintillating screen converts the radiation into visible light and produces images on the rear side which can be intensified and captured with a high-speed or ultra high-speed camera.

Target penetration studies with multi-anode Flash X-ray tube: transparent armor & projectile, 7.62 x 51 mm AP steel core @ 850m/s conventional transparent armor without ceramic front. No erosion and deformation of steel core. Illustration & image courtesy Fraunhofer EMI.

Scandiflash XT 300-4C Multi-Anode Flash X-ray Tube & Schematic
Dimensions (HWD):
37.95 x 19.09 x 23.62 in

(96.4 x 48.5 x 60 cm)

Control Tower

Control Tower 34HU with four channels & laptop computer

Cabinet Dimensions (HWD): 
67.5 x 24 x 24 in
(171.5 x 60 x 60 cm)

A computerized control system is used for Scandiflash FXR Systems.
The electronics units are microprocessor controlled and connected to a laptop/desktop computer via Ethernet. All operating parameters can be set and read using a laptop/desktop computer. Where safety reasons or facility layout call for remote control, the system can be operated from long distance via fiber optic cable.

Power Distribution Unit – PDU 4
The PDU 4 contains a high-voltage power supply and is controlled by the FXRC 4 unit.

Flash X-ray Channel Control Unit – FXRC 4
Each system channel has a Flash X-ray channel control unit featuring the following functions:

  • delay generator – range 0–999.999ms in 1 µs increments with two trigger modes (contact closure & pulse)
  • time interval meter – 0.05µs time resolution
  • dry air pressure control – for insulating high-voltage pulser modules
  • dielectric gas pressure control – for insulating high-voltage cable connectors
  • ion pump power supply (protection circuit included)
  • system monitoring unit – monitors pulse in each channel and may be sourced from up to six check points in the FXR System: 1. trigger input to delay generator, 2. delay generator output, 3. trigger amplifier output, 4. pulser output, 5. pulser to tube cable output, and 6. X-ray tube output (optional)

Switch Unit – SU 8
The SU 8 is an 8-channel Ethernet switch that handles communication between computer and FXRC 4 units. It features a built-in Ethernet to fiber optic modem for using fiber optic cable for long distance operation.

ScandiControl* by Scandiflash

ScandiControl is software developed for the operation and control of Scandiflash FXR systems. ScandiControl gives you full remote control of all settings and operational parameters while handling up to eight channels of your FXR system.

ScandiControl has four user modes:

ScandiControl config: used to configure system hardware at the factory before shipping. This mode allows the user to extend the FXR system by adding or removing components.

ScandiControl User: standard mode for taking radiographs

Test Mode User: for system operation with resistive loads

Scandiflash: allows Scandiflash personnel to log into your computer and run ScandiControl for diagnostic purposes 

* ScandiControl is the property of Scandiflash and does not require a third party license.

Pressure Regulation

Scandiflash CAD700 Series

Dimensions (HWD):
31.89 x 24.80 x 26.77 in
(81 x 63 x 68 cm)

Scandiflash CAD700 Series

Eco-friendly compressed dry air is used in Scandiflash FXR Systems instead of SF6 (Sulphur hexaflouride, a toxic potent greenhouse gas) to improve insulation of high-voltage pulsers & X-ray tube cables, protection from environmental conditions and to control the breakdown voltage of fixed spark gap switches inside the pulsers.

The CAD700 Series compressed air drying system has been meticulously designed and includes a compressor, cooler, adsorption dryer & storage tank to produce high-quality compressed dry air on-demand for optimal research results with your FXR system.

NOTE: Compressed dry air obtained from local gas suppliers must be dust & moisture free for reliable and stable FXR system operation.

Service Station

Scandiflash RPS30 Service Station

Leverage flexibility and sustainability with your Scandiflash system. It’s the perfect match for interchangeable anode/cathode flash X-ray tubes.

Cost-effective configuration and service
Enjoy the economical and performance benefits of affordable anode and cathode swapping. The same Scandiflash flash X-ray tube can be used for many scenarios by simply swapping anodes and cathodes.

The RPS30 service station contains a service tool box that houses the tools to make anode/cathode switching and alignment fast and easy to minimize experimental downtime. You can also store your spare anodes, cathodes and X-ray windows in this toolbox for quick access during configuration and maintenance.

Dimensions (HWD):
37 x 24.2 x 20.2 in
(940 x 614 x 513.6 mm)

Read more about the RPS30 here

X-ray Shielding

Scandiflash systems have been designed to span a wide range of output voltages and provide flexible tools for the engineer or scientist. Scandiflash XTS series shieldings are designed to fit Scandiflash flash X-ray tubes to reduce the radiation from these tubes in the non-forward direction. The XTS series of products is retrofittable and can be mounted in the field.

FXR Counter

Keep track of your X-ray source history

A hardware and software combination

The Scandiflash FXR Counter is a separate hardware module designed to count the number of CVR signals and report counts in software that can be installed onto the control computer of your setup. This tool is essential for monitoring the usage of your X-ray source and preventing equipment damage.

 

Retrofittable to Scandiflash Systems

One of the key advantages of the Scandiflash FXR Counter is its retrofit capability. This means that it can be easily integrated into existing Scandiflash systems. If you’re concerned that your cables are not designed to fit CVR’s on the tube and/or pulser side, it’s just a quick fix away. This feature allows for a seamless upgrade, ensuring that you can continue to use your current equipment while benefiting from the enhanced functionality of the FXR Counter. This makes it a versatile and cost-effective solution for managing your X-ray source history.

 

Why is it Important?

The 20 ns short X-ray pulse generated in Flash X-ray radiography wears down the anode and cathode of the X-ray source. This limits their use from tens to hundreds of flashes, depending on anode size and pulser model. Overuse of an anode can lead to equipment damage, such as a short in the cable. It is crucial to keep track of the number of flashes.

 

How Does it Work?

The FXR Counter tracks the number of flashes from multiple X-ray sources that are switched between pulsers and even counts the number of discharges from pulsers. This allows you to monitor the total number of delivered high voltage pulses for service intervals. The FXR Counter can handle 12 individual signals, and each counter can be named individually. By using the Scandiflash FXR Counter, you can ensure the longevity of your X-ray source and maintain the efficiency of your radiography operations.

see the nearly impossible

Scandiflash flash X-ray instruments can give your research the edge you need.

Get In Touch

Tel: +46 18 557510

Location

Scandiflash AB
Palmbladsgatan 1A
SE-754 50 Uppsala
Sweden

Email

mailbox(at)scandiflash.se

Hours

Mon-Fri: 9am - 4pm

Request a meeting, ask a question, or just send us a message

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